Curtin, ‘Medical training and urban believe during the warm Africa’, AHR, ninety, step 3 (June 1985), 594-613; Raymond F

Curtin, ‘Medical training and urban believe during the warm Africa’, AHR, ninety, step 3 (June 1985), 594-613; Raymond F

Grillot, ‘Dans ce Haut-Congo Fran9ais \ MC (19step 14), 140-1

96 AOM, AP648, Decree into the creation of an effective Commune within Brazzaville, 5 Oct 1911; speech off Governor-General Merlin, BCAF, 10 (1910), 331; AOM, 4(2)D7, Annual statement from Moyen-Congo, Brazzaville, 1911. 97 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, thirty six. 98 Mandat-Grancey, Au Congo, 182. 99 Veistroffer, Vingt arts, 103; Baratier, Au Congo, 121. 100 Colonel Moll, Une dme de colonial: lettres du Lieutenant-Colonel Moll (Paris, Emile-Paul, 1912), 10; Deschamps, De- Bordeaux au Tchad, 22-5; Frey, ‘Brazzaville’, 44-6; Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 32-step 3, step three 8 ^ 0 . 101 To own urban structures inside colonial Africa, look for, Philip D. Betts, Not sure proportions: west overseas empires filipino chat rooms on twentieth century (Minneapolis: College off Minnesota Force, 1985), 114-46; Odile Goerg, ‘Reflexion en ce qui concerne l’architecture europeenne le enough time de- la cote africaine a good partir de- l’exemple de- los angeles Guinee’, inside the Almeida-Topor and you will Riesz (eds.), Rencontres franco-allemandes sur VAfrique, 81-92; and you may Gwendolyn Wright, ‘Tradition on service off modernity: architecture and you can urbanism into the French colonial policy, 1900-1930’, Diary of modern Records, 59 (June 1987), 291-316. 102 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 34. 103 To your background and you will dependence on the fresh Fourteenth away from July when you look at the Brazzaville, come across Phyllis Yards. Martin, ‘National getaways turned: the newest fourteenth regarding July when you look at the Brazzaville’, papers showed from the thirty-7th yearly fulfilling of the African Knowledge Association, Toronto, ps, ‘Rapport sur la area de- Brazzaville’. 105 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, thirty six. 106 Address from Governor-General Merlin, BCAF, 10 (1910), 337. 107 Gabrielle and you can Joseph Vassal, Franfais, Beige et Portugais durante Afrique Equatoriale (Paris: Pierre Roger, 1926), 42. 108 Headrick, ‘The perception of colonialism into health’, 221. 109 Curtin, ‘Medical knowledge and you will urban planning’, 594-7. 110 Ibid., 598-609; plus Headrick, ‘The impact out-of colonialism towards the health’, 143-cuatro, 801-2. 111 Bonchamps, ‘Rapport en ce qui concerne los angeles region de- Brazzaville’. 112 Frey, ‘Brazzaville’, 44; Sautter, De- VAtlantique aufleuve Congo, vol. We, 398. 113 Challaye, Ce Congo Franfais, 219. 114 JO, ps, ‘Rapport sur la region de- Brazzaville’; and additionally AOM, 4(2)D1, Brazzaville Administrator so you can Administrator-Standard in Libreville, thirteen July 1901. 116 Cited within the Headrick, ‘The impression regarding colonialism towards the health’, 383. 117 JO, 20 May 1905. 118 AGPSE, 510BVI, Annual account ‘Oeuvres de- los angeles Sainte-Enfance’, 24 October 1901,step 1 January 1903,ten November 1912. 119 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 42. Chikouangue was a regard to manioc cash. 120 AOM, TP152, initial series, Goal Fillon, Declaration away from Yards. Henri into Brazzaville employees, 1913. 121 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 38-nine.

Fehderau, The origin and you will growth of Kituba (Lingua Franca Kikongo) (Kisangani: Universite Libre du Congo, 1966) means that Kituba was a code of this slave trade; William J

122 AGPSE, B706, Brazzaville Mission Journal, 31 May 1908; Roentgen. P. C. 123 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 38-9. 124 Pick, instance, J.-P. Chretien and you may Grams. Prunier (eds.), Les ethnies ont une histoire (Paris: Karthala, 1989); Leroy Vail (ed.), The creation of tribalism from inside the southern area Africa (London: James Currey, 1989; Chris Grey, Modernization and you may cultural name: the creation of national room during the rural France and you will colonial area inside outlying Gabon (Bloomington: Indiana College Focus on All over the world Change and World Peace, 1994); Terence Ranger, The brand new advancement off heritage from inside the colonial Africa’, in the Hobsbawm and you can Ranger (eds.), The new advancement regarding culture, 211-62, he possess revised because development away from customs revisited: the way it is from colonial Africa’, for the Terence Ranger and you may Olufemi Vaughan (eds.), Authenticity while the state during the twentieth century Africa (London: Macmillan, 1993), 62-111. About improve regarding their article, Ranger could have been swayed, as well as others, because of the Benedict Anderson, Thought teams: reflections on sources and you may spread from nationalism (London: Verso, 1983). 125 Harold W. Samarin, Brand new origins off Kituba and you may Lingala’, Journal away from African Languages and Linguistics, several, 1 (Sep 1991), 47-77, implies that its diffusion is actually a great deal more connected with international rail gurus on the lower Congo. 126 ASMF, Age l l . Brev fran Kongo, Lindgren so you’re able to SMF, 18 October 1911; B and you can Elizabeth. no. step one, Korr., Lindgren to SMF, eleven November 1911; F. no. 1, Dagbok, 22 February 1914; Brev fran Kongo, Grams. Good. Hult so you’re able to SMF, 11 January 1918. 127 Message off Governor-General Merlin, BCAF, ten (1910), 337. 128 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 38-9; AOM, 4(2)D13, Report about Pond area, Brazzaville, Get 1913. 129 Mumbansa mwa Bawele, ‘Y an effective-t-il de l’ensemble des Bangalas?’ Zaire-Afrique, 78 (arin, ‘The roots from Kituba and Lingala’, 47, 57-69, and ‘Bondjo ethnicity and you may colonial imagination’, Canadian Record from African Degree, 18 (1984), 345-65. 130 ‘Brazzaville’, BPSE, 25 (1909-10), 511; AGPSE, B706, Brazzaville Goal Diary, 30 Can get 1908,25 September 1910,step one December 1913. 131 Pick chapters step 3 and 4. 132 Grillot, ‘Dans ce Haut-Congo Francais’, 139; ‘Brazzaville’, BCPSE, twenty-seven (1913-14), 55; P. Augouard, Quarante-quatre annees au Congo (Evreux: Poussin, 1934), fifty, 72-3,105. 133 Girard,’Brazzaville’, 30, 31. 134 AOM, 4(2)D5, Management declaration, Moyen-Congo, September-November 1910. 135 Frederick Cooper, ‘Urban space, industrial date, and you may wage labor inside the Africa’, in his Battle for the town, 23. 2 step 1

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